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Showing posts with label EDUKASI. Show all posts
Showing posts with label EDUKASI. Show all posts

Monday, 16 November 2015

Tutorial "membenci" kuliah

23:23




Hal ini ditulis karena kita hidup pada zona kapitalis dimana sistem pendidikan mencetak sarjana yang siap bekerja yang dibekali ilmu "masa Lalu" dengan cara menghafal, dan mengingat, kemudian akan di teskan dan viola, beberapa bulan setelah tes akan lupa, kemudian apa yang di ingat dan dihafalkan di convert  menjadi sebuah nilai. Kepintaran dalam sistem ini jelas, orang-orang dengan kemampuan menghafal yang baik dan cepat. Lalu bagaimana dengan saya yang memiliki otak pas-pasan, susah mengingat, apakah sistem ini cocok ?Dengan ini saya menyatakan "membenci" kuliah. 

Bagaimana cara "membenci" kuliah ?

1. Duduk manis di ruang kelas !
    Dengan duduk manis diruang kelas, dengan pelajaran yang akan dilupakan pada semester depan hal ini bisa menambah kamu untuk "membenci" kuliah, tak hanya duduk saja, tetapi catat poin-poin inti, biasanya yang dibicarakan di kelas itu 20% isi 80% sisanya adalah basa basi, sesuai dengan hukum Pareto. Setelah mengetahui 20% nya, pasti akan "benci" untuk belajar !, karena terlalu singkat, dan praktis. 

2. Tidur di kelas !

    Tidak dipatok secara umum juga, kalo udah ngantuk kenapa juga harus dipaksain melek ?, hidup itu harus dinikmatin, jangan dipaksa. Setelah energi terisi, segera pinjem catetan teman, ambil intisari dan ulang kembali, gunakan prinsip pareto 20%, jangan lupa absen kelas bro.

3. Keluarkan seluruh kekuatan !
 Saking "bencinya" sama kuliah, kamu harus memaksimalkan seluruh kekuatan kamu untuk belajar
"pintar", yaitu dengan cara pinjem ulangan tahun lalu dari kakak kelas, biasanya kalau lagi beruntung soalnya sama cuma ganti angka.

Jadi apa kesimpulan yang Anda dapat ? dengan "membenci" kuliah kita sama saja mengejar nilai, tapi kita tidak sepenuhnya mengerti ilmu yang didapatkan  dan relevansi dengan ilmu yang kita pelajari, sukai, atau ingin kita terapkan, saya yakin seyakin-yakinnya beberapa semester kedepan pasti lupa .

Begitulah sistem kita, ketika kita dapet Ijazah :
Orang tua, pakde, mbah, bulik, om, tante, keponakan, mbah dari eyang pasti senang. Selanjutnya sebagai sarjana siap untuk bekerja, dengan mengkesampingkan  mengembangkan kemampuan, potensi serta passion kita sebenarnya.

Anyway, semua ngak dipatok secara umum :).

Last But not Least, nonton TED ini juga,



Saturday, 25 May 2013

Cara menghafalkan tabel periodik

11:53

Dulu, pada zaman SMA, mau enggak mau harus menghafalkan table periodik, dan kalau hafal sih bagus :D, sebenernya ada metode jembatan keledai, tapi disini aku mau share lagu tabel periodik :D, walaupun sekarang kuliah di elektro dan enggak menggunkan tabel periodik, ngak ada salahnya untuk berbagi :D hehehe. Sebenernya cara menghafalkan lebih efektif menggunakan jembatan keledai, tapi disini ada satu video dan ada lagunya juga yang bisa membuat lebih tertarik :D hahaha...

Silahkan sing a song  :D, hanya saja pengucapannya harus cepet wkwkw.

Thursday, 28 March 2013

Download Materi Pemrograman Bahasa C

10:14

Kali ini saya akan share, beberapa materi kuliah tentang pemrograman bahasa C yang merupakan bahasa fundamental :D. Langsung aja di download

Dalam .rar tersebut, list materi  :

1.Tipe Data & Input Output
2.Percabangan dan Kondisi
3.Perulangan
4.Array
5.Pointer dan Aritmatika Pointer
6.Prosedur dan Fungsi
7.Struct
8.Rekursi
9.Operasi File

Silahkan di download disini
password : fabrian

“I think everybody in this country should learn how to program a computer
because it teaches you how to think.” 
— STEVE JOBS, THE LOST INTERVIEW



Saturday, 11 August 2012

belajar Online SNMPTN 2013

02:38
SNMPTN 2013, intinya adalah banyak latihan. Dari beberapa pengalam saya, untuk SNMPTN belajar secara online silahkan teman-teman menuju link berikut :

1. Masuk Negeri
Latihan soal-soal banyak di masuk negeri


2.Sony Sugema

Try Out Online, dan Video Pembahasan


3.Zenius
Teori dan Video Pembelajaran serta Pembahasan.



Share tentang pengalaman, kebanyakan yang lolos SNMPTN itu yang pada les-les di bimbel :), saran saya segera ambil les bimbel, kalau kamu sekolah di Negeri ngak menjamin Guru kamu itu bakalan ngajarin bener-bener, tau sendirikan, kalau kamu diajarin sama gurumu, masalahnya saya udah pengalaman, di Smanssa, dan mereka bener-bener berpikiran "Ah, anak-anak udah pada ikut bimbel", jadinya di kelas itu cuma di kasih soal dan ngak di ajarkan pelajaran, inikah pendidikan di INDONESIA...?. Akhirnya dengan wifi gratisan saya mencoba belajar melalui website online, dan resikonya sih, mata agak capek. Kalau kamu ikut bimbel itu biasanya diajarin cara ngitung nilai, karena pas itu saya hanya ngerjain matematika 15 fisika 15 tapi biologi ma kimia ngak ada (nilai mati) (*btw aku ngak ikut bimbel), malahan temen aku yang ikut bimbel itu dikasih tips dan triknya. Tapi semua tergantung dari diri sendiri :). Selamat belajar dan selamat berjuang.

Tapi, sepertinya tahun 2013 tidak ada ujian tulis PTN :), berbahagialah teman :D hehehe

Sunday, 8 April 2012

MIT bringing paper robots to the masses

19:54

A project called “An Expedition in Computing Printable Programmable Machines” at MIT is working to create a future where you can print robots as easily and efficiently as Kinko’s makes copies.
The National Science Foundation (NSF) is backing the project with $10 million that will hopefully last through the projected 5 year timeline and allow consumers to design, customize, and print their very own robots. So, by 2017 you’ll be able to walk into a retail store and order one of MIT’s paper robots to, perhaps, check out what that smell is behind the dishwasher a la Mars rover style.
Two of these origami prototypes–one which resembles a pincer and the other an insect–have already been produced in MIT’s research labs. The entire process takes all of 70 minutes and $100 to build, which is a huge jump from the years and Benjamins it takes to build any other robot currently. But aside from making the device marketable to the masses, there’s also the issue of building them to be durable enough in software and in hardware to withstand the test of a novice robot-operator.
The team needs to create a streamlined program that’s broad enough to suit a variety of needs, while assuring that if there is a user error it doesn’t cause the device to malfunction. They also need to create something that’s disposable, but not flimsily constructed. Ideally, consumers would be able to visit a website in order to diagnose their household woes, select a model at a local store to help with said problem, and customize the robot.
Professor Daniela Rus, leader of the project at MIT’s Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL), sees this project as a way to “democratize access to robots.” Something that has been a niche product could very well become as easily obtainable as a mobile phone, if successful.
More at MIT (12), via ExtremeTech

Vibrotactile glove lets deaf-blind people communicate via SMS

19:44



Being blind means you can still communicate through sound, being deaf means you can rely on sign language and reading to interact with others. Being deaf and blind severely limits your communication options to just touch.

Deaf-blind people mainly rely on the Lorm alphabet and tactile signing for communication, which requires physical touch on a hand with another person. That means using a device like a phone is impossible simply because there isn’t that physical interaction. However, a new glove being developed at the Design Research Lab, located at the Deutsche Telekom Laboratories and Technical University in Berlin, aims to change that.
It is called the Mobile Lorm Glove and allows for translation of Lorm alphabet input into digital text, and vice-versa with text translated into the Lorm alphabet. The user can input a message via the pressure sensitive pads on the glove, which then gets translated into text and transmitted viaBluetooth to a smartphone. That message can be sent as a text message, email, or turned into audio output (eventually). An incoming message will be turned into vibrotactile digital Lorm text after being sent to the glove, again via Bluetooth. It is “read” to the glove wearer using the vibration motors mounted on the back.
The glove is still a prototype, but already looks very promising in opening up communication to deaf-blind people beyond the limitations of physical interaction. It will also allow access to different types of information due to the translation ability of the glove. So, surfing the web, reading a digital book, or translating audio should be possible in the future, with direct speech input and output being the next stage of development.
More at the Design Research Lab, via Phys.org

Google Project, GOogle Glass !

18:50

For quite awhile now, rumors of the “Google Glasses” have been floating around the internet. Leaks and guesses led to some interesting concepts about what the technology might look like, and how it might work. News of these glasses fell off the radar for a little bit, until Google unveiled their Google+ page for what they are calling Project Glass, with a video to accompany it. Project Glass is the name Google is currently using for their wearable computer technology that they plan to start testing in public starting today.
At first glance, the Project Glass headset gives me a flashback to Jeri Ryan as Seven of Nine from Star Trek: Voyager. Despite early reports that these glasses would be bulky shades, like the Oakley Thumps, the glasses appear to be a thin visor like band that you would wear like glasses. The computer and the lens appear to barely take over the one eye. As is typical with a Google unveiling, the video leaves you with more questions then answers.
Taking a look at the video below, it seems like the device is constantly connected to the web, which is not surprising coming from Google. The headset appeared to be streaming music and then switched quickly to a video call. The glasses seem to have GPS as well, as demonstrated when the device checked in and used Google Maps walking directions. A picture is almost instantly uploaded and posted to Google+. Project Glass appears to be a great wrapper for all of Google’s services that exist now, and some that are on the way.
Navigating the UI appeared to be a combination of gestures and voice commands. Accessing the menu happened when the user tilted their head up slightly, or you could give a voice command for a specific functions. The commands that are given are fairly specific, possibly hinting at the integration of Project Majel, Google’s upcoming voice-based assistant and possible Siri competitor.
There’s no real information available, outside of the video and “sources close to the matter”. Our own source originally suggested that Google I/O attendees would be able to play with the Google Glasses, and given that the device is being tested out in the public eye now, that seems even more likely.
Image via (and more coverage at) the NY Times.

Saturday, 7 April 2012

Top 10 Ways to Turn Your Retired Gadgetry into the Technology of the Future

23:28

Top 10 Ways to Turn Your Retired Gadgetry into the Technology of the Future

With the rapid progression of technology each year, it's easy to accumulate a pile of obsolete gadgets that you just can't bear to get rid of. So don't! Here are our top 10 ways you can take the retired gadgets you've already got and turn them into something that has a solid place in the future.

10. Turn an Old Mobile Device into a Dedicated VOIP Handset

 We've seen how easy it is to turn an iPod touch into an iPhone using a few tricks and some sort of VOIP service, and it's just as easy with an old phone—so long as you have a constant Wi-Fi connection. It can be nice to have a home phone or two you can use to answer calls when your cellphone isn't handy, you don't have great reception, and you don't want to leave the VOIP app unattended. So grab a mobile copy of Skype, Fring, Line2, or whatever, and leave it open and ready on your old mobile device. It'll wait for someone to call it, or you can just pick it up and, say, order a pizza without the fear of yet another dropped call.

9. Create a Wireless Internet Radio from an Old Router

Radios and routers aren't exactly technology of the future—more of the past and present, really—but when you combine them with the internet you've suddenly got a pretty awesome device for streaming music. The process isn't even that complicated. All you really need is a particular wireless router (the Asus WL-520GU is recommended in this case) and a USB sound card. Pretty neat.

8. Create a Home Security System with a Webcam

Top 10 Ways to Turn Your Retired Gadgetry into the Technology of the Future When you buy a new laptop, or even a monitor monitor, these days you're almost guaranteed a built-in webcam. That's great, but what do you do with your old bulky, USB-cabled micro-camera? You use it as a security monitor for your home. You can even make it motion-sensing. Better to have it catching criminals than collecting dust, right?

7. Use an Old PC Fan to Create a Battery-Charging Wind Turbine

Maybe wind power is the future and maybe it's not, but we're headed towards something sustainable so you might as well get started now. If you'd like a means of recharging your batteries without relying on an outlet, create this wind turbine out of an old PC fan. This project involves a little hacking and tinkering, but it's worth it just to have power anywhere the wind blows.

6. Turn an Old Projector into a Book Scanner

Top 10 Ways to Turn Your Retired Gadgetry into the Technology of the Future Most kids born in the last decade don't know whiteout from Britney Spears, so someday you're going to hear the question "did you really used to read books on paper?" Perhaps it's time to accept the inevitable and realize that the medium we know as print is a bit more ephemeral than we may like. But losing our books isn't an option, so the only thing we can really do is take an old projector and turn it into a book scanner, of course! If you've got the time, patience, or lower-level employee you can torture, this little project will finally help you evolve those dead tree tomes into their next state of being.

5. Make a Touchscreen Tablet Out of an Old Netbook

Top 10 Ways to Turn Your Retired Gadgetry into the Technology of the Future Netbooks had their moment, but their sales are dwindling thanks to the popularity of the tablet. If you wish your netbook actually was a tablet, you're not really out of luck. Just turn it into one. (That linked post even includes software we made to provide it with a heads up display to make it feel even more touch-friendly.) It's not going to be as magical as an iPad, but it's a fun upgrade for a computer you may not use so much anymore. Alternatively, you can do the same with an old MacBook if you've got one of those lying around instead.

4. Build a Cellphone-Powered Robot

Even your old cellphone, smart or not, has enough power to create a personal robot. The video to the left is proof of how an old mobile can create a "cardboard truckbot." The additional parts you'll need will only cost you $30, and Cellbots provides instructions on how to put it all together. You've likely got an old feature phone you've been planning to recycle for the past five years. Rather than wait for that day to never come, provide that gadget of the past with new life as talking, robotic truck.

3. Turn an Old Computer into an XBMC Home Theater PC

Top 10 Ways to Turn Your Retired Gadgetry into the Technology of the Future XBMC is our favorite media center software. It's free and it's better than it's paid alternatives thanks to a slick, customizable interface that plays all sorts of media from the majority of networked and local destinations. It can pull content from the web, tell you the weather, double as a retro video game console, and much more. What's really great is that it can run on a super cheap, underpowered nettop. That may also mean your old computer is entirely adequate for the job. Either way, you'll be up and running a home theater system that's ahead of its time before you know it.

2. Automate Your Home with an Old Router

The homes of the future will be automated, but you can have that now with the help of an old router. Said router needs to be OpenWRT compatible and this project will require a few other things, but if you're up to the challenge you'll be controlling your home from your smartphone on the cheap.

1. Turn an Old Computer Into an Internet PVR, Downloader, and NAS

The future of home entertainment ought to be as elegant and wonderful as the systems we can put together ourselves today. Old computers are perfect machines for creating a fully-featured content downloader. You can simply set up automated BitTorrent and Usenet downloads, or go so far as to turn that old machine into a NAS and install Usenet tools like SABnzbd and Sickbeard as well. This will make an old machine, seemingly destined for obsolescence, into an incredibly powerful server that will provide you with virtually any entertainment you want. It's unfortunate there isn't a comparable product and service available for purchase right now, but that's part of what makes doing it yourself seem so amazing when you're through.

9 Implants that make human healthy body even more useful

23:07
1. RFID Chips – A nice and easy way to start out with body hacking is to implant an RFID chip into you. An RFID chip is just a passive antenna that’s pre-configured to transmit a specific code when it’s brought near an RFID reader. Generally, RFID is used as a key of sorts; so for example, you can set up your computer or your phone to unlock only when you pick them up. Or install an RFID-enabled deadbolt on your front door and an RFID reader in your car and you won’t need to carry your keys around anymore. It’s completely safe — you can even do it yourself.

2. Medical Sensors - Most people go to the doctor when there’s something wrong with them, at which point it’s too late to take much in the way of preventative measures. Sensor systems implanted inside our bodies would be able to detect even the faintest little whiff of something like cancer, alerting us when we’ve still got plenty of time for treatment. A couple years ago, a professor from MIT developed a 0.2-inch-long implant embedded with nanoparticles that respond to cancer cells, but much more is possible. In the near future, we may all get implants with entire arrays of nano-sized virus and disease detectors that can send instant alerts to our cell phones. And our doctor’s cell phone.

3. Energy Harvesters - As anyone who’s seen The Matrix knows, humans have the potential to generate a lot of electricity. The tricky part is finding a good way to harvest it, but one solution is to use piezoelectric rubber films that can be implanted beneath your skin. This “piezo-rubber” is able to convert 80% of mechanical energy (bending or pressure) into electricity, and coupled with an induction coil, you could charge your phone by just pressing it against a layer of energy harvesters right under your skin.

4. LED Arrays - Want something that can outshine every single tattoo ever inked? How about implanting a programmable LED array underneath your skin. Think of it: you could play movies on your forehead, use your palm as a flashlight, or even turn your entire body into one giant music visualize and dance around in pulsing naked glory. And if you just pair your LEDs up with some of those energy harvesters from the previous slide, and won’t even have to worry about recharging yourself.


5. Augmented Reality Contacts - Consider how much time, effort, and money has gone all over the world into developing bigger and fancier and 3D-ier TV screens, all for the benefit of our tiny little eyes. Putting screens into our eyeballs themselves seems inevitable, whether it’s for augmenting our existing realities or constructing entirely new ones. The contact lens in the above picture is just a prototype, but the next generation will contain a wireless antenna plus an array of semi-transparent LEDs that are entirely invisible when turned off. When turned on, they form perfectly in-focus images. Power is wireless too. The only thing to be careful of is that anything that the lenses show you appears inside your eyelids, so like it or not, you’re going to see it.

6. Brain Remote - Yes, soon it will be possible to change channels on your TV and even browse the web while entirely motionless. Intel has been working on brain implants designed to read your brainwaves directly and translate your thoughts into commands that can then be sent wirelessly to a variety of electronic devices, from TVs to computers to cell phones.

7. Bionic Limbs - We’re just starting to get to the point where bionic limbs with nerve integration and brain control work well enough for them to be a viable option for people who need a replacement. In fact, some people who have lost the ability to use a hand are choosing amputation in order to get a new bionic version, which incidentally has a greater range of motion than a human hand, being able to spin around at the wrist. It’s no stretch to imagine that at some point in the future, you might have the option of replacing your hand with a bionic one that’s identical in every sensation, except that it’s ten times stronger, much more maneuverable, and detachable to boot.

8. Bionic Eyes - Our eyes do a decent enough job of letting us get around I guess, but in the absolute sense our biological hardware is a little primitive. We can see three different colors in a fairly narrow spectral range, and we need a large amount of light to do it. Compare that to the eyes of the tiny mantis shrimp, which can see twelve different colors from infrared to ultraviolet while also detecting both linear and circular polarization and performing redundant trinocular depth analysis. Luckily, we can just replace our eyes with cameras, which we can tune to see whatever different wavelengths we want. This pic shows a prototype bionic eye from the Boston Retinal Implant Project.

9. Orgasm Button - A spinal implant designed to alleviate chronic pain has a happy side-effect for some women: it gives them orgasms. The doctor that invented it has patented the design and is trying to convince Medtronic to develop a dedicated remote-control orgasm machine: you’d just push a button or activate an app on your phone and bam, orgasm. The device has also worked for men, and FDA approval is in the works. Expect to pay about $12,000 for one of these on-demand orgasm implants, which are called (seriously) Orgasmatrons.

Friday, 2 March 2012

LAPORAN Reaksi Nyala Alkali dan Alkali Tanah

17:40
Jika Laporan ini berguna, bisa bantu support lewat 

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=============================================
Reaksi Nyala Alkali dan Alkali Tanah
I.         Tujuan
Mengamati warna nyala garam alkali dan alkali tanah.
II.       Landasan Teori
Logam alkali dan alkali tanah memberikan warna nyala yang khas, warna nyala dari logam alkali tanah dapat digunakan sebagai salah satu cara mengidentifikasi adanya unsur logam alkali dan alkali tanah dalam suatu bahan. Dalam percobaan ini akan diselidiki warna nyala dari senyawa logam alkali dan alkali tanah.
III.     Alat dan Bahan
Alat dan Bahan
Ukuran
Jumlah
-Kaca arloji
-Tabung reaksi/rak
-kawat nikrom
-lampu spiritus
-kristal natrium klorida
-kristal kalium klorida
-kristal stronsium klorida
-kristal barium klorida
-asam klorida pekat
6 cm
Kecil
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
2/1
6
1
½ sendok
½ sendok
½ sendok
½ sendok
10 mL

IV.     Cara Kerja
1.    Mencelupkan ujung kawat nikrom yang berpijar ke dalam HCl pekat untuk membersihkannya.
2.    Mencelupkan ujung kawat nikrom yang telah bersih ke dalam HCl pekat, kemudian kedalam kristal logam yang diperiksa sehingga ada kristal yang menempel, selanjutnya memasukkan ujung kawat tersebut ke dalam nyala api. Mencatat warna nyala dalam tabel pengamatan.
3.    Mengamati warna nyala senyawa yang lain dengan cara yang sama. Setiap akan berganti, senyawa yang akan diuji warna nyalanya,kamat nikrom harus benar-benar bersih.
V.       Hasil Pengamatan
No
Senyawa Logam
Rumus Kimia
Warna Nyala
1
Natrium klorida
NaCl
Kuning
2
Kalium klorida
KCl
Ungu
3
Stronsium klorida
SrCl2
Merah
4
Barium klorida
BaCl2
Kuning


VI.     Pembahasan
Pada  percobaan uji nyala ini, hal pertama yang dilakukan adalah membuat nyala lampu Bunsen spiritus. Hal ini dilakukan dengan mengatur nyala Bunsen melalui pengaturan cincin pengatur sehingga didapatkan nyala api yang kebiruan atau tidak berwarna. Hal ini dilakukan untuk memudahkan dalam melakukan pengamatan warna nyala terhadap kation-kation golongan IA dan IIA selama proses pembakaran. Tapi karena keterbatasan alat, dalam percobaan ini kami menggunakan spiritus bunsen biasa yang nyala apinya menunjukkan warna oranye yang sebenarnya mengganggu proses identifikasi kation golongan alkali dan alkali tanah.
Langkah selanjutnya yang dilakukan adalah kawat nikrom yang telah dibengkokkan (dilengkungkan),  dibersihkan dengan cara memasukkan ujung kawat tersebut ke dalam HCl pekat dan dipanaskan dengan nyala api. Kawat nikrom ini bersih jika nyala api sama dengan semula yang dalam hal ini adalah warna oranye. Jika sudah bersih, digunakan HCl pekat untuk membersihkan kembali kawat nikrom. Pemilihan HCl Pekat dikarenakan HCl dapat melarutkan zat-zat pengotor atau kontaminan yang masih melekat pada kawat nikrom sehingga pengotor tersebut akan mudah menguap dari kawat, sehingga kawat benar-benar bersih. Pencelupan kembali ke dalam HCl ini juga berfungsi agar nantinya garam-garam klorida lebih mudah menempel ketika kawat di masukkan ke dalamnya.
Selanjutnya, sampel padat dari garam-garam klorida ditempatkan dalam plat tetes. Selanjutnya ujung kawat nikrom dicelupkan ke dalam garam-garam klorida dan dipanaskan di atas api bunsen. Pada percobaan digunakan garam-garam klorida dari natrium, kalium, stronsium, dan barium. Dipilihnya garam-garam klorida dari golongan alkali dan alkali tanah karena garam-garam ini mampu membentuk garam-garam klorida yang ketika dibakar menunjukkan warna yang spesifik. Pada dasarnya, apabila suatu senyawa kimia dipanaskan, maka akan terurai menghasilkan unsur-unsur penyusunnya dalam wujud gas atau uap. Kemudian, atom-atom dari unsur logam tersebut mampu menyerap sejumlah energi tinggi (keadaan tereksitasi). Pada keadaan energi tinggi, atom logam tersebut sifatnya tidak stabil sehingga mudah kembali ke keadaan semula (berenergi rendah) dengan cara memancarkan energi yang diserapnya dalam bentuk cahaya. Besarnya energi yang diserap atau yang dipancarkan oleh setiap atom unsur logam bersifat khas. Hal ini dapat ditujukkan dari warna nyala atom-atom logam yang mampu meneyerap radiasi cahaya didaerah sinar tampak.

VII.    KESIMPULAN
Natrium klorida memberi warna Kuning, Kalium klorida memberi warna Ungu, Stronsium klorida memberi warna Merah , Barium klorida memberi warna Kuning.


LAPORAN Penentuan Kadar NaClO dalam Pemutih

17:37

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Penentuan Kadar NaClO dalam Pemuti
h
I.         Tujuan
Mengetahui kadar NaClO dalam pemutih.
II.       Landasan Teori
Cairan pemutih (pengelantang) untuk pemutih pakaian (mencuci) banyak di jual di pasaran dengan berbagai merk dagang, misalnya bayclean, sunclean, dan lain-lainnya. Di dalam cairan pemutih tersebut terdapat  bahan aktif NaClO yang umumya mempunyai kadar 5,25% (menurut label). Kadar NaClO tersebut dapat ditentukan melalui titrasi volumetric dengan Na2S2O3 sebagai larutan standart.
III.     Alat dan Bahan
1.    10 ml larutan Bayclin yang diencerkan
2.    Larutan KI
3.    Larutan HCl
4.    Gelas Beker
5.    Buret
6.    Statif
7.    Larutan Na2S2O3 0,1 M
8.    Pipet


IV.    Cara Kerja
1.    Mengencerkan 10 ml larutan Bayclin menjadi 100 ml.
2.    Mengambil 10 ml dari larutan Bayclin yang telah diencerkan tadi.
3.    Menambahkan larutan KI secara berlebihan dan HCl (sampai berubah warna menjadi kuning kecoklatan).
4.    Meletakkan buret pada statif.
5.    Mengisi buret dengan larutan Na2S2O3 0,1 M sampai batas 0 ml.
6.    Meletakkan larutan Bayclin+KI berlebihan+HCl di bawah buret untuk dititrasi sampai larutan berubah warna menjadi bening kembali.
V.      Hasil Pengamatan
No
Sebelum ditetesi KI+HCl
Setelah ditetesi KI+HCl
Setelah dititrasi
Volume larutan Na2S2O3
1
Bening
Kuning kecoklatan
Bening
8 ml
2
Bening
Kuning kecoklatan
Bening
6,2 ml

VI.    Pembahasan
Cairan pemutih harus diencerkan terlebih dahulu sebelum dititrasi dikarenakan agar perubahan-perubahan yang terjadi selama reaksi dapat teramati dengan baik selain itu, agar apabila cairan tersebut terkena tangan, tangan kita tidak gatal.
Pada percobaan ini, ditambahkan larutan KI dan HCl untuk memberi suasana asam, karena reaksi di atas hanya akan terjadi jika suasana asam.
Penambahan larutan KI yang dibuat berlebihan agar hasil I2 yang bereaksi dengan Na2S2O3 dapat bereaksi seperti yang diharapkan. ClO‾ yang mengoksidasi I‾ sangat mempengaruhi kebutuhan larutan KI.
Pada percobaan ini terjadi reaksi sebagai berikut:
i.       NaClO + 2KI + 2HCl → NaCl + 2KCl + I2 + H2O
ii.     I2 + 2Na2S2O3 → 2NaI + Na2S2O6
Berdasarkan hasil pengamatan dari percobaan yang telah dilakukan, maka dapat dihitung kadar NaClO sebagai berikut:
Percobaan 1:
-        NaClO     +     2KI +    2HCl →     NaCl +     2KCl +        I2        +    H2O
 0,4 mmol                                                                     0,4 mmol
-        I2          +          2Na2S2O3 →       2NaI  +        Na2S2O6
                          8 ml; 0,1 M
      0,4 mmol     0,8 mmol
Massa NaClO    = mmol x Mr NaClO
                        = 0,4 x 74,5
                        = 29,8 mg
Kadar NaClO  = (0,0298 gr : 10 gr) x 100%
= 0,298%
= 0,3%

Percobaan 2:
-        NaClO     +     2KI +    2HCl →     NaCl +     2KCl +        I2        +    H2O
 0,31 mmol                                                                   0,31 mmol
-        I2           +           2Na2S2O →       2NaI  +        Na2S2O6
                            6,2 ml; 0,1 M
      0,31 mmol      0,62 mmol
Massa NaClO    = mmol x Mr NaClO
                        = 0,31 x 74,5
                        = 23,095 mg
Kadar NaClO  = (0,023095 gr : 10 gr) x 100%
= 0,23095%
= 0,23%
            Kadar NaClO rata-rata =
= 0,265%
VII.  Kesimpulan
Berdasarkan percobaan diatas, dapat disimpulkan kadar NaClO dalam pemutih adalah 0,265%.

Pengendapan Garam Alkali Tanah

I.            Tujuan
Mengamati pengendapan garam alkali tanah
II.            Landasan Teori
Garam alkali tanah bila dicampurkan dengan larutan garam akan menghasilkan endapan. Endapan yang terbentuk dapat diketahui melalui rumus untuk mencari Ksp’.
III.            Alat dan Bahan
1.    Larutan SrCl2, Na2CO3, BaCl2, Na2SO4, Na2C2O4, KCrO4
2.    Pipet
3.    Tabung reaksi dan rak
IV.            Cara Kerja
1.   Mencampurkan larutan SrCl2 dengan Na2CO3.
2.   Mencampurkan larutan BaCl2 dengan Na2CO3.
3.   Mencampurkan larutan SrCl2 dengan Na2SO4.
4.   Mencampurkan larutan BaCl2 dengan Na2SO4.
5.   Mencampurkan larutan SrCl2 dengan Na2C2O4.
6.   Mencampurkan larutan BaCl2 dengan Na2C2O4.
7.   Mencampurkan larutan SrCl2 dengan KCrO4.
8.   Mencampurkan larutan BaCl2 dengan KCrO4.
9.   Menunggu beberapa lama, kemudian mengamati apa yang terjadi.

V.            Hasil Pengamatan dan Pembahasan
Tabel 1
No
Ion logam alkali tanah 0,5 M
Ion pereaksi 0,05 M
Ksp
Ramalan
(mengendap)
Alasan
1
Ca2+
CO32-
5x10-9
-
Ksp’>Ksp
2
Sr2+
CO32-
1x10-10
++
Ksp’>Ksp
3
Ba2+
CO32-
5x10-9
++++
Ksp’>Ksp
4
Ca2+
SO42-
1x10-4
-
Ksp’>Ksp
5
Sr2+
SO42-
3x10-7
+++
Ksp’>Ksp
6
Ba2+
SO42-
1x10-10
++++
Ksp’>Ksp
7
Ca2+
C2O42-
2x10-9
-
Ksp’>Ksp
8
Sr2+
C2O42-
5x10-8
++++
Ksp’>Ksp
9
Ba2+
C2O42-
2x10-7
++
Ksp’>Ksp
10
Ca2+
CrO42-
Besar
-
Ksp’>Ksp
11
Sr2+
CrO42-
2x10-5
+
Ksp’>Ksp
12
Ba2+
CrO42-
1x10-10
++++
Ksp’>Ksp

Tabel 2
Hasil Pengamatan
Mengendap atau Tidak mengendap
Kecocokan dengan Ramalan
Alasan
SrCO3
Mengendap
Cocok
Ksp’>Ksp
BaCO3
Mengendap
Cocok
Ksp’>Ksp
SrSO4
Mengendap
Cocok
Ksp’>Ksp
BaSO4
Mengendap
Cocok
Ksp’>Ksp
SrC2O4
Mengendap
Cocok
Ksp’>Ksp
BaC2O4
Mengendap
Cocok
Ksp’>Ksp
SrCrO4
Mengendap
Cocok
Ksp’>Ksp
BaCrO4
Mengendap
Cocok
Ksp’>Ksp

Hal ini dibuktikan dengan cara sebagai berikut:
            Misalnya SrCl2 volume 1 ml dan Na2CO3
            SrCl2 + Na2CO3 → SrCO3 + NaCl
            Setlah dicampur:
            SrCO3 → Sr2+ + CO32-
            [Sr2+] =
            [CO32-] =
            Ksp’ SrCO3 = [Sr2+][CO32-]
                             =
                             =6,25 X 10-3 M
            Maka, Ksp’ SrCO3       >   Ksp SrCO3
                                6,25 X 10-3 M >    1x10-10  →  Sehingga dapat terbentuk endapan.
Demikian juga dengan reaksi-reaksi lainnya.
VI.            Kesimpulan
Reaksi-reaksi antara garam alkali tanah dengan larutan pereaksinya menghasilkan endapan, karena Ksp’>Ksp.